Δευτέρα, 29 Νοεμβρίου 2010

2010 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency --Greece

Επειδή κάποιοι είναι πιο οργανωμένοι και έχουν καλύτερη εικόνα από εμάς σας παραθέτω τα παρακάτω βασικότερα σημεία της αναφοράς του 2010 από τη CIA.
010 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CΙΑ) --Greece
Backround
Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); .........
........fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union in 2001. In 2010, the prospect of a Greek default on its euro-denominated debt created severe strains within the EMU and raised the question of whether a member country might voluntarily leave the common currency or be removed.
Economy
Greece has a capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 15% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP. The Greek economy grew by nearly 4.0% per year between 2003 and 2007, due partly to infrastructural spending related to the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, and in part to an increased availability of credit, which has sustained record levels of consumer spending. But growth dropped to 2% in 2008. The economy went into recession in 2009 and contracted by 2%, as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens' failure to address a growing budget deficit, which was triggered by falling state revenues, and increased government expenditures. Greece violated the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP from 2001 to 2006, but finally met that criterion in 2007-08, before exceeding it again in 2009, with the deficit reaching 13.7% of GDP. Public debt, inflation, and unemployment are above the euro-zone average while per capita income is below; debt and unemployment rose in 2009, while inflation subsided. Eroding public finances, a credibility gap stemming from inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on following through with reforms prompted major credit rating agencies in late 2009 to downgrade Greece's international debt rating, and has led the country into a financial crisis. Under intense pressure by the EU and international market participants, the government has adopted a medium-term austerity program that includes cutting government spending, reducing the size of the public sector, decreasing tax evasion, reforming the health care and pension systems, and improving competitiveness through structural reforms to the labor and product markets. Athens, however, faces long-term challenges to push through unpopular reforms in the face of often vocal opposition from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public. Greek labor unions are striking over new austerity measures, but the strikes so far have had a limited impact on the government's will to adopt reforms. An uptic in widespread unrest, however, could challenge the government's ability to implement reforms and meet budget targets, and could also lead to rioting or violence. In April 2010 a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating; in May, the International Monetary Fund and Eurozone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors. In exchange for the largest bailout ever assembled, the government announced combined spending cuts and tax increases totalling $40 billion over three years, on top of the tough austerity measures already taken.
$333.4 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$340.2 billion (2008 est.)
$333.5 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
$31,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$31,700 (2008 est.)
$31,200 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.4%
industry: 20.7%
services: 76% (2009 est.)

4.98 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

agriculture: 12.4%
industry: 22.4%
services: 65.1% (2005 est.)

113.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
102.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
$21.34 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$29.14 billion (2008 est.)
food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
Germany 11.11%, Italy 11.05%, Cyprus 7.28%, Bulgaria 6.74%, US 4.95%, UK 4.4%, Turkey 4.23% (2009)
$64.2 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$93.91 billion (2008 est.)
machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Germany 13.73%, Italy 12.71%, China 7.08%, France 6.1%, Netherlands 6.02%, South Korea 5.68%, Belgium 4.34%, Spain 4.08% (2009)
$552.8 billion (30 June 2009)
country comparison to the world: 17
$504.6 billion (31 December 2008)
NOTE: The information regarding Greece on this page is re-published from the 2010 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Greece Economy 2010 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Greece Economy 2010 should be addressed to the CIA.

για περισσότερες λεπτομέρειες:  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html
                                                      http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/index.html

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